Looking out the window of the International Space Station, astronauts spotted a sprawling mass of clouds.
International Space Station Captures Image of Arthur
Looking out the window of the International Space Station, astronauts spotted a sprawling mass of clouds. The clouds were just beginning to take shape as the first tropical storm of the 2014 season built over the Atlantic. Tropical Storm Arthur formed off southern Florida on July 1, 2014. By morning of July 2, when an astronaut took this photo with a wide-angle lens, the storm was moving north along the Florida coast. Surrounded by bright green waters, the Bahamas Islands are south of the storm in the lower right corner of the photo. The U.S. coastline stretches along the left side of the photo.
Arthur is forecast to become a hurricane over the next two days. It may graze or strike the Outer Banks of North Carolina as it moves north. The National Hurricane Center has issued a hurricane watch or tropical storm warning for much of coastal North Carolina and a tropical storm watch for part of South Carolina. Please visit the National Hurricane Center for the latest warnings.
Reference:¬ National Hurricane Center (2014, July 2) Tropical Storm Arthur. Accessed July 2, 2014.
Astronaut photograph ISS040-E-030560 was acquired on July 2, 2014, with a Nikon D3S digital camera using a wide-angle (19 mm) lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by the Expedition 40 crew The image in this article has been enhanced to improve contrast. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory as part of the ISS National Lab to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.
Text credit: Holli Riebeek
NASA's Earth Observatory
This visible image of Tropical Storm Arthur was taken by the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on July 2 at 18:50 UTC (2:50 p.m. EDT). A cloud-covered eye is clearly visible.
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
This false-colored infrared image from the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on July 3 at 2:47 p.m. EDT shows powerful thunderstorms (purple) around Arthur's center. The powerful, high cloud tops had temperatures near -63F/-53C.
NASA JPL/Ed Olsen
July 03, 2014 - Morning - NASA Sees Hurricane Arthur's Cloud-Covered Eye¬
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Arthur on July 2 at 2:50 p.m. EDT on July 2, it saw a cloud-covered eye as the storm was on the way to becoming a hurricane.¬ ¬
This visible image of Tropical Storm Arthur was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. Arthur's center was over the Atlantic Ocean and east of Florida's northeast coast. By 5 a.m. EDT on July 3, Arthur's eye had formed but remained cloud covered even as the storm hit hurricane-strength with maximum sustained winds near 75 mph.¬ ¬
The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured infrared data on Tropical Storm Arthur's cloud tops on July 3 at 2:47 p.m. EDT. The data was made into a false-colored infrared image at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The image showed powerful thunderstorms around Arthur's center with temperatures near -63F/-53C. Cloud tops that cold tower to the near the top of the troposphere and have the ability to produce heavy rainfall.
By 8 a.m. EDT on July 3, watches and warnings peppered the U.S. Southeast. The National Hurricane Center or NHC issued the following: a hurricane warning is in effect for Surf City, North Carolina to the North Carolina/Virginia Border, Pamlico Sound and the Eastern Albemarle Sound. A hurricane watch is in effect for the Little River Inlet to south of Surf City. In addition, a tropical storm warning is in effect for South Santee River, South Carolina to south of Surf City; the North Carolina/Virginia border to Cape Charles Light; and Virginia, including the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay; and the Western Albemarle Sound.¬
On July 3 at 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC) the center of Hurricane Arthur was near latitude 31.8 north and longitude 78.7 west. That puts Arthur's center about 300 miles (480 km) southwest of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and just 150 miles (240 km) south-southwest of Cape Fear, North Carolina. Maximum sustained winds have increased to near 80 mph (130 kph) and some additional strengthening is forecast during the next 24 hours.
The National Hurricane Center noted that Arthur is moving toward the north-northeast near 9 mph (15 kph and a turn to the northeast is expected. Arthur's center is expected to approach the coast in the hurricane warning area tonight, July 3.
Forecaster Brennan noted in the July 3 discussion on Arthur that after moving very close to the North Carolina Outer Banks late on July 3 and early July 4, the storm should then accelerate northeastward offshore of the mid-Atlantic states and the northeastern U.S. on July 4.¬ By July 5, the NHC expects Arthur to move into the Canadian Maritimes.
Text credit:¬ Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
July 02, 2014 - NASA's TRMM Satellite Spots Heavy Rainfall Around Tropical Storm Arthur's Center
One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, some 227 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of Tropical Storm Arthur early on July 2, 2014.
GOES-West image of Arthur.
NOAA/NASA GOES Project
NASA's Terra satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Storm Arthur on July 1 at 16:30 UTC (12:30 p.m. EDT) over the Bahamas.
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
This image of rainfall occurring in Tropical Storm Arthur on July 1, 2014 at 12:20 p.m. EDT showed heavy rain (red) around the center of the storm.
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
Tropical Storm Arthur appears to be ramping up, and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite spotted heavy rainfall occurring around the storm's center on July 1 when it was centered over the Bahamas.
Those heavy rains are expected to affect the southern U.S. coastline over the next several days as the National Hurricane Center expects Arthur to strengthen into a hurricane. On July 2, the NHC issued a Hurricane Watch for Bogue Inlet to Oregon Inlet, North Carolina and Pamlico Sound. In addition, a Tropical Storm Watch is in effect for the east coast of Florida from Sebastian Inlet to Flagler Beach, South Santee River South Carolina to south of¬ Bogue Inlet, North Carolina,¬ north of Oregon Inlet, North Carolina to the North Carolina/Virginia Border, and the Eastern Albemarle Sound.
The TRMM satellite had a good daylight look at tropical storm Arthur on July 1, 2014 at 1620 UTC (12:20 p.m. EDT) less than two hours after it was upgraded from a tropical depression. At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland rainfall from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) data were overlaid on a GOES-East satellite infrared/visible image taken at 1626 UTC (12:26 p.m. EDT). The TMI instrument showed very heavy rainfall around Arthur's center. The heaviest rainfall was occurring at a rate of about 2 inches per hour. Powerful thunderstorms in that area reached heights above 15.5 km (about 9.6 miles).
Shortly after TRMM flew over Arthur and gathered rainfall and cloud height data, NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of the storm over the Bahamas. The image, created by the NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team, used visible data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument that flies aboard Terra. The image showed a concentration of powerful storms around the center and northwestern quadrant of the storm. Arthur's western quadrant continued to affect the east coast of Florida.
On July 2 at 8 a.m. EDT (12:00 UTC) the center of Tropical Storm Arthur was near latitude 28.8 north and longitude 79.0 west. That's about 100 miles (160 km east-northeast of Cape Canaveral, Florida and NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Arthur's center is also 275 miles (445 km) south of Charleston, South Carolina.
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that Arthur is moving toward the north near 6 mph (9 kph) and this motion is expected to continue today. A turn toward the north-northeast is expected tonight, July 2, followed by a turn toward the northeast. Maximum sustained winds remain near 60 mph (95 kph). Some strengthening is forecast during the next two days and Arthur is expected to become a hurricane by Thursday, July 3.
NHC noted that Arthur is expected to move east of the east-central coast of Florida today, July 2, pass east of Northeastern Florida tonight, move parallel to the coast of South Carolina on Thursday July 3, and approach the hurricane watch area Thursday night. For expected conditions along the watch areas, please visit the National Hurricane Center website: www.nhc.noaa.gov.
Text credit:¬ Rob Gutro / Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Depression 1 (01L) off the coast of central Florida on June 30 at 3 p.m. EDT.
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
NASA's TRMM satellite showed showers and thunderstorms near the center of the low near 6.2 miles. A few of the outer rain bands contained thunderstorms as high as 8 miles (red) indicating strong storms with heavy rainfall potential.
NASA/Hal Pierce, SSAI
View animated GIF (13 MB)
July 01, 2014 - Atlantic's Developing Tropical Depression 1
On June 29, 2014, at 7:06 p.m. EDT (2306 UTC) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM, satellite flew over a low-pressure center east of Florida. This low-pressure area developed over South Carolina and moved east into the Atlantic Ocean where the warm waters of the Gulf Stream helped fuel it.
NASA's TRMM satellite uses different instruments that allow scientists on Earth to create 3-D images of those storms so they can see where the most powerful areas are within it. A NASA rainfall analysis made on June 29 that used data from TRMM's Microwave Imager¬ and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments showed that rainfall was only light to moderate near the center of the low.
At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, the TRMM science office also created a simulated 3-D view of rainfall using TRMM PR data that showed most of the convective (rising air that forms clouds and thunderstorms) showers and thunderstorms near the center of the low were only reaching altitudes of about 6.2 miles (about 10 km). A few of the outer rain bands contained powerful thunderstorm "hot towers," or towering clouds that reached heights of about 8 miles (13 km) indicating strong thunderstorms with heavy rainfall potential.¬
On June 30 at 3 p.m. EDT the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an impressive visible image of Tropical Depression 1 off the coast of central Florida. The image showed some powerful, high thunderstorms over the Bahamas. In visible imagery, the strongest thunderstorms are identified as the highest ones that cast shadows on the clouds below them.
On July 1 that area of low pressure developed into Tropical Depression 1. The National Hurricane Center issued a Tropical Storm Watch for the east coast of Florida from Fort Pierce to Flagler Beach.
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted at 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC) that the center of Tropical Depression 1 was located near 27.5 degrees north latitude and 79.2 degrees west longitude. That's just about 95 miles (155 km) southeast of Cape Canaveral, Florida. The depression has remained nearly stationary during the past few hours. A northwestward motion is expected to begin later today, followed by a turn toward the north on Wednesday. Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph). The estimated minimum central pressure is 1007 millibars.
NHC noted that the depression may become a tropical storm later in the day on July 1.¬ ¬ The system is forecast to pass east of northeastern Florida on Wednesday, July 2. For updates, visit the National Hurricane Center webpage: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov.
Rob Gutro and Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
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